坤宁宫祖宗杆子之考 Researches on the ancestral post outside the Kun Ning Palace

祖宗杆子位于坤宁宫东南侧,即交泰殿东北角处。故宫博物院藏品总目编号为:故00204055,标注为满洲祭天神杆。现仅存神杆的基座。

The ancestral pole is located at the southeast side of the Kunning Palace, which is the northeast corner of the Hall of Union. The catalog number is No. 00204055, and is recorded as a Manchurian pole for offering sacrifices to the gods. Now only the pedestal of the sacred pole exists.

图1:祖宗杆子基座远视
Figure 1: Look at the ancestral pole pedestal from a distance, 2016
图2:祖宗杆子石基座
Figure 2: The ancestral pole pedestal, 2016
图3: 祖宗杆子近瞅
Figure 3: A close look at the ancestral pole pedestal, 2016
图4: 故宫藏品总目编号
Figure 4: the catalog number of the Palace Museum Collection, 2016
图5: 故宫藏品总目编号截屏
Figure 5: the screen shot of the catalog number

神杆满语称“索罗”,又有索罗神杆之说。杆子长啥样,请看图6。至于神杆用于祭祖,还是祭神,争论不断[3]。

The sacred pole is called “Soluo” in Manchu, and there is also the saying of Soluo’s sacred pole. The shape of the pole is shown in figure 6. The debate continues as to whether the sacred pole should be used for ancestor worship or for offering sacrifices to the gods [2].

图6: 坤宁宫外祖宗竿子(原照片说明)
Figure 6: The ancestral post outside the Kun Ning Palace, 1924 (original caption) [1]

宫外神竿,又名“祖宗竿子”,满俗于祭天时,于竿东北放案,陈颈骨胆脍米等,祭后献颈骨于竿端,置胆脍米于碗内,然后帝后受胙。[2]

The sacred pole outside the palace, also known as the Ancestral Pole. According to the Manchu custom, when offering sacrifices to heaven, the altar table is placed in the northeast of the sacred pole. On the altar were neck bones, gall bladders, shredded meat and rice. When the sacrifice is over, place the neck bone at the top of the pole, the gallbladder, shredded pork and rice into a bowl, and then the emperor and Queen prayed for blessings. [2]

坤宁宫于清朝依满族风格分别在顺治十二年(1655)、康熙十九年(1680)和嘉庆三年(1798)进行过三次改建与修缮[4],至于神杆于何年开始在坤宁宫竖立,未见记载。不过从1900-1925的照片(图6-图9)中可见祖宗杆子。而1982年的照片中已不见了杆子的踪影。祖宗神杆竖立与除去的具体年代还有待考证。

In Qing Dynasty, the Kun Ning Palace was rebuilt and renovated three times according to the Manchu style in Shunzhi 12th year (1655) , Kangxi 19th year (1680) and Jiaqing 3rd year (1798) [4]. As for when the sacred pole began to erect in the Palace, there is no record found. However, the ancestral poles can be seen from the photos of 1900-1925 (Fig. 6-Fig. 9). The pole is missing from the 1982 photo. The specific age of erecting and removing the ancestral sacred pole remains to be verified.

图7: 祖宗杆子
Figure 7: The ancestral post, 1922 [5]
图8:交泰殿
Figure 8: The Hall of Union,the beginning of the 20th century [6]
图9:交泰殿与坤宁宫
Figure 9: The Hall of Union and Kun Ning Palace, 1900 [6]
交泰殿与坤宁宫
Figure 10: The Hall of Union and Kun Ning Palace, 1982 [7]

据四库全书记载,神杆取自延庆县之松木。[8]点击见详

According to the Sikuquanshu, the sacred pole was taken from the pine trees of Yanqing District. Click to view details.

注释(notes):
[1]故宫丛刊之三 故宫摄影集 第一编第二册 交泰殿坤宁宫 清室善后委员会 30页
[2]国立北平清室善后委员会:《故宫图说》第一编中路及内东路,1924,10页
[3]张杰:清代满族萨满教祭祀神杆新考,社会科学辑刊,2003年05期
[4]宋文:坤宁宫萨满祭祀特点考析,故宫博物院院刊,2017年04期
[5]单霁翔:故宫藏影,故宫出版社,2018年
[6]林京:北京城百年影像记,故宫出版社,2016年
[7]杨伯达 翁万戈:故宫博物院藏品选,1982
[8]四库全书卷3:《钦定满洲祭神祭天典礼》

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s