文华殿院内的铜缸座Stone bases of the bronze vats in the courtyard of the Hall of Literary Brilliance

文华殿东、西两侧的本仁殿和集义殿北侧各存有两个铜缸底座。由于罕见的青砖漫地基台,起先被我误认为是枯井,多亏网友“不得不犯狗”指点。文华殿的铜缸何时被移走的,让我联想到了1944年的日军献铜献铁运动。当时为应对此事,故宫博物院对院内铜缸进行了清点,造册,共277件,包括:1类:明清两代所造有款识者98件;2类:虽无款识,但察铜色类似明代造者125件;3类:无款识,查其式样不能断明年代者54件。最终于1944年6月19日将3类无款识的54件铜缸交予了日军[1]。至于文华殿的铜缸是否属于这54件无款识铜缸之列,查看当时的清点造册即可。还有一个疑问有待考证,现在公认说法,故宫有大小水缸308口,与1944年的探察数据277有31件的差异。

本仁殿北侧缸座
Bronze stone bases, the north side of Benren Hall
本仁殿北侧 缸座近瞅
A close look at the bronze stone bases, the north side of Benren Hall

In the north sides of Jiyi Hall (集义殿)and Benren Hall(本仁殿), there are two stone bases of bronze vats separately. At first I mistook them for dry wells because of the rare grey-brick plinth, thanks to the advice of a Weibo friend. When the bronze vats were removed, I am reminded of the Japanese dedication of copper and iron campaign in 1944. In response to the incident, the The Palace Museum conducted an inventory of 277 bronze vats in the Forbidden City. It includes: type 1: 98 pieces of bronze vats with Ming and Qing Dynasty manufacture signature mark; type 2: 125 pieces of bronze color similar to those made in the Ming Dynasty but without manufacture signature mark; type 3: 54 pieces of no identification and the style can not be judged to belong to the Ming Dynasty. Finally, on June 19, 1944, the Palace Museum handed over 54 bronze vats belonging to the third category of no identification to the Japanese army [1]. As to whether these lost copper vats were included in the list of 54 unidentifiable copper vats, a check of the inventory at that time will make it clear. Another question remains to be answered. It is now generally accepted that there are 308 bronze vats in the Forbidden City, 31 of which are different from the 277 counted in 1944.

集义殿北侧缸座
Bronze stone bases, the north side of Jiyi Hall
上缴铜缸 [2]
Hand over bronze vats, 1944
上缴铜缸 [2]
Hand over bronze vats, 1944

PS: 网友不得不犯狗提及,1944年文华殿仍归古物陈列所管辖。
A Weibo friend mentioned that in 1944, the Hall of Literary Brilliance was still under the jurisdiction of the National Museum of Art, Peiping.

注释note:
[1]黄金:沦陷前后张庭济与“奉命维持”的 北平故宫博物院事业,《故宫博物院院刊》,2014年05期
[2]孙岩:人非物是,八年沦陷的故宫博物院,《紫禁城》,2005年05期

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