武英门铺首 A Pu Shou or door knocker of the Gate of Martial Valor

武英门铺首纹样在故宫中实属少见(见图1)。武英门同治八年(1869)毁于火,同年重修[1],该铺首应属清晚期。与明代、清早中期铺首相比,最大变化在于螺蛳特征减弱:1,三瓣圆鼻头变为一个鼻头两个鼻孔;2,正常的眼珠变为双目圆睁,末端多出若干鱼尾纹;3,火焰状的螺蛳眉变为两撇武夫式浓眉;4,“U”形犄角变为叉状鹿角;5,最大变化在于额头圆盖状结构消失,代以老虎的“丰”字纹。

This pattern is rare in the Forbidden City (see Figure 1). The Gate of Martial Valor(武英门)was destroyed by fire in the eighth year of the reign of Emperor Tongzhi, Qing dynasty (1869), and rebuilt in the same year [1]. Therefore, the Pu Shou should belong to the late Qing Dynasty. Compared with the Door Knockers of Ming Dynasty and early or middle Qing Dynasty, the greatest change is that all the features of the snail are weakened: 1, the three-lobed round nose becomes a nose with two nostrils; 2, two eyes opened wide with a few crow’s feet at the corners; 3, the flame-like snail eyebrows have become two stroke warrior-like thick eyebrows; 4, the “U” shaped horns become forked antlers; 5, the biggest change is the disappearance of the forehead round lid-like structure, which is replaced by a tiger’s “丰” pattern.

注释notes:
[1] 万依《故宫辞典》[增订版],故宫出版社,2018

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